Ripple Control | Audio Frequency Injection Control Equipment

Load Management - Ripple Control

Requirements for the load controller

The load regulator of a ripple control system must satisfy the following two requirements:

1. The distribution utility (e.g. Municipality) wants the lowest possible load peak so as to save tariff costs and reduce investment in the distribution network.

2. The customer should be inconvenienced as little as possible by the load control.

Reducing cost is a constant challenge for all energy supply companies. A significant part of the expenditures for energy are performance-related costs. Reducing the peak power by only a few percent will already lead to big savings. Therefore, making use of load management with ripple control technology in order to reduce peaks will pay off within a few years. Expanding the distribution network is a permanent task, causing investments that need to be considered (interest, write-offs). If the consumption can ideally be distributed over the course of the day it is possible to shift peaks to less busy times. Load control enables you to do so and save expenses for interest and amortisation.

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Controllers RKS System – Ripple Control

​Open System Architecture

The RKS system can be adapted to any possible customer requirements. It can be configured either as a centralised system, with a stand-alone controller, or as a decentralised system, with a central controller controlling a number of local controllers. In addition, combinations of these configurations are also possible.

The following figures explain these configurations in detail.

It should be noted that when changing from one configuration to the other, no hardware changes are required: simply an upgrade to the firmware in the controllers is necessary. Licensing costs may differ however.

Modern Communication

In general, RKS control units can be networked via a local area network (LAN).  In this case, communication takes place via an Ethernet connection, in accordance with TCP/IP, and uses either copper cables, fibre-optic cables or WLAN.

The LAN allows for:

  • Networking of multiple workstations in the control centre. Depending on the access rights, each workstation can be used either for parameterisation or operation.

  • Data export to other systems (e.g. export of working hours to MS-EXCEL™ via an office-LAN).

Naturally, RKS control units can also be connected via conventional communication infrastructure such as V24 interfaces or a permanent cable connection.

Centralised Control (Stand-alone Controller)

 

The RKS-16 central controller autonomously controls the operation of the ripple control system, independently of its connection with the PC. It can be operated from the PC or, optionally, via the built-in LCD touch screen. Parameterisation and setting of protocols takes place via the PC. The central controller can control up to 128 sets of injection equipment by means of direct impulse telegram transmission.

It is also possible to operate and parameterise multiple RKS-16 central controllers from a single PC. This is particularly useful when the time programs for all RKS-16 central controllers are identical, but when individual load controllers are used for each RKS-16.

Decentralised Control System

 

In a decentralised architecture the RKS-870 central controller takes over responsibility for system control and coordination of the RKS-12 local controllers. In case of a communication loss, the local RKS-12 controllers automatically take over control of the injection equipment.

The system can optionally also be operated without a central gateway. The RKS-870 central controller has the advantage that it is a robust hardware solution, specially designed for ripple control applications. The PC is always used for the operation, parameterisation and setting of protocols.

The RKS-870 system offers a special advantage since it can accommodate mixed systems.  This is especially useful for transition phases, as the central controller can also control ripple control injection equipment units using the direct impulsing control method.

When using an automatic load controller, power measurement values from the various RKS-12 local controllers can be summated in the central controller.

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Transmitter SRS – Ripple Control

Expandable and modular construction

The Swistec Ripple Control Transmitter SRS is especially optimized for ripple-control tasks:

  • Suitable for all types of coupling (parallel or series)

  • Control unit and transmitter form a single unit

  • Control, operation and supervision take place via a TCP/IP-connection

  • The SRS transmitter can be synchronized with other transmitters

  • To obtain the best possible reliability, redundant operation of two transmitters is possible, with automatic change-over in the event of a fault

  • The SRS transmitter uses modular construction and has the following characteristics:

    • Output powers from 4kVA up to 400kVA

    • Future proof modular technology

    • Customer specific construction

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Rigid Parallel Coupling Circuit – Ripple Control

Expandable and modular construction

Rigid Parallel Coupling Circuit

The rigid coupling principle allows a very compact coupling cell design and stable (load independent) signal voltages in the network. It consists of a band pass filter tuned to the ripple control frequency and an isolating transformer to separate low and medium voltage. Experience has shown that most customers prefer the rigid type of coupling, and that, with time, they will change from other types of coupling (e.g. loose coupling) to the rigid coupling because of its advantages. The high coupling efficiency of the rigid coupling, with consequent low losses, leads to an economical transmitter design. It guarantees a stable ripple control injection voltage that is within the specified range almost independently of the load. The coupling circuits offered by Swistec are designed for the necessary signal level taking into consideration the parameters of the MV network.

The main benefits of rigid parallel coupling circuit are:

  • Stable ripple control injection voltage

  • The output can be selected using different taps at the isolating transformer

  • The ripple control signal is load independent

  • Easy tuning of each phase by choosing the correct tapping on the coil

  • Easy retuning in case of a capacitor change

  • High quality factor

  • Low losses

  • Compact construction, especially when mounting components above one another

  • The rigid parallel coupling is the most widely used type of ripple control coupling throughout the world

We also offer a broad range of series coupling cells for indoor and outdoor installation.

 

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Swistec Ripple Control Receivers

SRvario – The classic Receiver for DB board mounting

The SRvario is a state-of-the-art ripple control receiver of the newest generation with its outer dimension fulfilling DIN 43861-2 requirements.

With its big variety of pluggable relays (up to four 40A or six 16A relays) the SRvario is always the first choice when multiple switching tasks need to be complied with.
The SRvario is also the best choice when old receivers need to be replaced.

Features

  • 1 to 6 relays 230 V, 16 A two-way contact

  • 1 to 4 relays 230 V, 40 A normally open contact

  • Relays, pluggable, with blind cover for unused slots

  • USB-interface and optical interface in accordance with IEC 62056-21 for parameterization, ripple-control signal analysis and protocol evaluation

  • In case of parameterization via USB, no supply voltage connection is necessary.

  • Pluggable PROM as alternative, simple solution for parameterization tasks (optional)

  • DIN-rail mounting in accordance with DIN EN 60715 possible

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SRcheck Ripple Control Measurment Equipment

Measurment Equipment for various applications

The SRcheck is a modern Ripple Control receiver in small size. It can be placed anywhere in the distribution network and registers all received commands and its voltage levels. There are 3 potential free, programmable outputs. Depending on requirements, the received telegram pulse or a DECABIT 3 second signal are available.

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SPM3 Ripple Control Measurment Equipment

Measurement equipment

  • AF voltages up to 20 V

  • Audio frequency range 50 Hz … 2 kHz

  • Choice of 3 bandwidths

  • Continuous measurements

  • Pulse measurements

  • Operating voltage 100 … 264 V

  • USB interface

 

The selective pulse level meter SPM3 has especially been designed for the fast and precise measurement of audio frequency voltages on mains voltage level. Thanks to its convenient features, it is particularly appropriate for field service by electric utilities.

The measuring range for AF voltages is from 0 V to 20 V. A new center frequency can easily be selected in 1/10 Hz increments via the numerical keys, up to a maximum of 2 kHz. Three fixed, specified filter bandwidths of 1.7%, 3.7% and 6.0% can be selected by the single push of a button.

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Swistra - Ripple Control of the 21st Century

Ripple Control of the 21st Century

What is Swistra?

  • Swistra is a completely new developed transmission method.

  • Swistra is an evolution for an existing Ripple Control system.

  • Swistra is a byte pattern composed of a command byte and three address bytes.

  • Swistra is backward compatible with known Ripple Control telegrams.

  • Swistra is the Ripple Control of the 21st Century.

 

Why switch to Swistra?

  • Swistra has higher data rate than other bit patterns.

  • Swistra has shorter telegram runtimes than other bit patterns.

  • Swistra has a very large address space.

  • Swistra can address each recipient on its serial number individually.

  • Swistra can be used without a conversion phase.

 

Swistra – flexible control!

With Swistra loads and generators can be controlled with a customizable group address structure, for example according to minisubs. Moreover each Swistra receiver can be controlled individually. The group assignment can be reprogrammed with a dedicated Swistra command via a Ripple Control transmission:

 

Swistra – how do I change?

  • Upgrade the control system. Swistec RKS-controllers only need a firmware update to achieve this.

  • Most static transmitters can be retained. Rotating transmitters need to be replaced (e.g. with a Swistec SRS-3xxx transmitter).

  • Installation of receivers for the desired new tasks.

 

Swistra – what remains the same?

  • Compliant and compatible with all existing Ripple Control systems / bit patterns.

  • Using the same frequency as the existing Ripple Control system.

  • Using the same coupling cells as the existing Ripple Control system.

  • Most static transmitters can be retained. Rotating transmitters need to be replaced (e.g. with a Swistec SRS-3xxx transmitter).

  • Using all existing receivers in a mixed mode.

 

Swistra – receivers from Swistec

All Swistec ripple control receivers use state-of-the-art, recently developed filter algorithms capable of reliably processing ripple control signals with operating voltages below 0.3% Un – a result of state-of-the-art processor technology combining high CPU power with little power consumption.

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